Animation – Types

Classical and digital 2D animation –
Classical also known as hand-drawn or traditional animation is a technique
animators use when they make at least 12 drawings on paper for a second length of film. Drawings are
scanned or captured for post production using computers. This was the main form of animation for tv
series and in film before the development of CGI.
In digital the animation frames are drawn directly on software. A mouse or pen tablet is used for this. The
technique is mostly used for tv series and web animation.

Digital 3D Animation –
By using this type of animation the 3D models are created, textured, rigged, and animated in the virtual

Stop-motion –
Is when a character or object is placed and posed against its background to show a frame. It’s then sightly
altered then makes another frame. This is repeated until the length of the animation is finished.

Clay animation –
Is one of the forms of stop motion. It is recognized as a independent technique and genre because of its
popularity and extensive use of clay (usually plasticine)

Cut-out animation –
Is another type of stop motion technique. It makes animations using flat character, backgrounds and
props. These are made out of different materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric and photographs.

Paint-on-glass animation –
Is used for animation films using slow drying oil paints of sheets of glass

Drawn-on-film animation –
Is also known as direct animation or animation without camera. It creates images directly on film stock
instead to any other form where the images/objects are photographed by frames with a camera.

Experimental animation –
This has no limitations for ideas or what is used. Instinct is used for materials of your choice to make the
final animation.

Flip Book –
Is created by a series of pictures that go from one page to the next. It shows the motion when the pages
are turned quickly.

Phenakistoscope disc –
Was early animation shown though a device that used vision principle to create a illusion of motion

Zoetrope –
It creates the illusion of motion from spinning. On the inside of the cylinder there are a set of sequenced
images. It spins and the person looks though the slits that are on the sides. The praxinoscope was the
successor to the zoetrope.

Puppet animation –
Involves stop motion puppet figures interacting within an constructed environment. The puppets have
armature inside them to keep them still and move particular joints. Puppet-animated films use different
versions of the puppet for different frames rather than using one existing puppet.


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