CATS – OCT 18th

After a recap on what happened in the last lesson we looked at Cinematography in CATS. Since I wasn’t at the lesson it helped give me a brief idea of what happened. This was looking at the visual style such as props, performance, costumes ect.
For cinematography we watched 10 to 15 mins of 5 different movies, while we watched we looked out for the framing, shot size, how long it took, the camera’s movement, crane shots, any tracking and/or zoom shots, the angles of the camera and the depth of field. While looking for these we also learnt the meanings of them.
While looking out for these we were basically were looking out for
. What framing was used such as in the menu screen, the moving images and options were on both sides so it makes you look at the thing as a whole.
. What was the shot showing, was it a close up or showing the people and backgrounds.
. How long was the camera on what it was looking at. Did it linger or was it pretty fast.
. How was the camera moving. Was it still, shown from some ones hight point, did it look like it was someone running with a handheld camera, any static happening.
. Was the camera following something from above such as a moving car
. What kind of angles are being shown.
. Is anything blurred in the background, does it focus on something. e.g. a falling leaf, can you see things in the distance background.


film language

Thought I put this one up, looking back at the posts shows that I didn’t so here is what I found about film language.


It’s how films tell the stories and affects the viewer. It uses elements to tell the story in a particular way.
They use camera, light and colour, sound and editing.
Camera uses shot names, movements, focus, framing, lenses and positions and lighting.
Light and colour uses both high and low key lighting, monchrome, saturation and of course colour.
Sound uses both diegetic and non diegetic sounds, speech, different attributes and music.
Editing uses pace, transitions, continuity editing and montage.


Oct 4th

We had a look at different camera views and angles,. We learned what the differnt views were called, basically we learned what shots were called and how they can be used. We went into groups and looked at 10 to 15 mins of footage. While watching we were looking out for what kind of camera views were used and how often they were used. The one we got was a Dr Who episode done in an animation style since the real footage had been lost. A lot of close ups were used, it also seemed to pan out quite a bit. It was over the shoulder at times as well. This also got us thinking about why they used the angles they went for, it made some parts look kinda dramatic and important.


Like with the sound, I’ll put the techniques together so everyone knows what i’v been doing in this so far.

Oct 2nd-

We looked at the different kinds of animation that have been used. Some of the animations we looked at were Muto, Simons cat, yellow sticky notes deadline, martrix style flipbook , I Met the Walrus and Western Spaghetti. Out of the animations we watched I liked Simons cat and western spaghetti the most.
I found Simons cat to be funny, I like the style that is used and at even though it is basic it shows a lot of expresion. There isn’t much sound to it just a few sound effects but that works in its favour.
The other one I enjoyed was Western Spaghetti by PES. I like at how this is different to what you think animation would normaly be. I like that this feels unquie.
After watching the different styles of animation we were asked to plan and create a flipbook.

Oct 9th-

The filpbook I made didn’t move like a flipbook should, it kept getting stuck and it didn’t move right. It wasn’t themed so we could do whatever we wanted. I first decided on what kind of charatcer look I wanted then the story I wanted to do. I picked my last idea, I liked it and the few people who saw the ideas liked that one too.



Character looks


The flipbook (after scanned) – it’s better to look at this since you can see what is meant to be going on



We were asked to draw five different shapes. They were cubes, spares, cylinders, cones and torus. I used pen and pencil to draw them, I also tried to get some shading in as well.

These are how they came out, I think for a first try they didn’t turn out that bad. I need them to look like they are on something, a little less drawn and more real looking, so i’ll work on that.




I decided that it would be best to put all three sound lessons so far together

Oct 1
For our first leason in sounds we listened to four different recordings. While listening to the recordings we
had to pick up on if there was any narrative, could any background noise be heard and if any fillers of
effects were used. We also had to see if we could hear if any accents were used, was it a interview, what
questions were asked if any, was a narrator in and how many speakers were in each clip.

Oct 8
In this one we went into groups and recorded the different sounds that we came across and thought would
be a interesting sound. The group that I was in recorded, buliders on the roofs, and music instruments
that were in the church. We also tryed to record and get an echo from the church. Before we went out
and recorded the sounds we were shown the recording equipmeant and told how to work them. We were
also told a bit about them as well.

Oct 15
From the previous week we were shown how to cut and paste the recordings we had. We were also told
about the different effects you could add to the recordings and what you can do to change how they sound. Isolating the sound you want to use was also shown.
We were in one of the soundproof rooms for the most part, while in there the group played around and
tested with the different effects. We got some interesting sounds and used them in differnet orders to try
and get something we liked. Putting all the sounds together didn’t really sound right, taking some of them
out was a better result.

Just a reminder for me

Ok so last week was ill and that nearly lasted a week so i’m behind on my blogs. This will be a list to help
remind me of what I need to sort out.

Film language
This and last weeks sound
Squash and stretch
The shape drawings ect
1st CATS (wasn’t here for the last one, I’ll look at the others to see what I missed)


Ok this should be it

Principles of animation

The principles of animation is also known as the bible of animation.

Squash and stretch –
Where something is squashed at impact and streatched on the fall and rebound. It moves faster during
the fall then slows down. It’s purpose is to give it a sense of weight and flexibility. It can be used for simple
objects such as a bouncing ball or more complex such as the human face. This can be used for a comical
effect however when used realistic its important that the volume doesn’t change when squashed or

Anticipation –
This is used to prepare the audience for a action. Also to make the action look more real. This can be used
for big actions like a dancer bending his knees or little actions such as someone looking off screen. There
can be a surprise gag which is made for the viewer to feel surprised.

Staging –
This is known in film and theatre, its purpose is to make it clear to the audience the importance in a scene.
This is for an action, mood, expression or personality. It can be done by placement of character, the use
of light and shadow, angle and position of the camera. It’s to keep focus on what is relevant.

Straight ahead action and pose to pose –
Two different approaches to the drawing process. Straight ahead means drawing the scene frame by frame
from start to finish. This creates more fluid, dynamic illusion of movement, and is better for producing
realistic action sequences. Although it’s hard to keep proportions and create exact, convincing poses.
Pose to pose starts with drawing key frame then filling the intervals later. This can work better for
dramatic or emotional scenes, where composition and relation to the surroundings are of greater importance.
The two are often used together, the computer animation removes problems for proportion and the facilitates
can fill in the missing sequences automatically.

Follow through and overlapping action –
Helps render movement more realistically and helps give the impression that character follow physics.
Follow through is separate parts of a body and will continue moving after the character has stopped.
Overlapping action is for parts of the body to move at different rates. A related technique is drag, the
character starts moving and the parts take some frames to catch up. For example inanimate ojects like
clothing or the body with the arms and legs. This can be used for comical effect while the realistic needs
timing on the actions exactly.

Slow in and slow out –
The movement of the body and other objects needs time to slow down and speed up. If it has more drawings
near the start and end with a few in the middle of the action this makes the animation look more real. This
goes for characters moving between poses such as standing up and sitting. This can go for inanimated
moving objects as well.

Arcs –
Arcs for greater realism. This can apply to a limb moving by rotating a joint, or a thrown object moving
along a parabolic trajectory. This typically moves in straight lines. As an object’s speed increases, arcs
flatten out moving ahead and broaden in turns. A fastball tends to move faster in a stright line then other
pitches, while a figure skater moves at top speed is unable to turn as sharply as a slower one. Traditional
animators tend to draw the arc in lightly on the paper for reference.

Secondary action –
This is so it can give the main action more life and can help support the main action. Someone could walk
with either keeping his arms together or swing them, he could be talking or whistling. The important thing is
to emphasize and not take attention away from the main action.

This refers the number of drawings/frames for a action. It’s established for a character’s mood, emotion
and reaction, it can also be used for communicate aspects of a character’s personality.

Exaggeration –
A useful effect for animation, imitation of reality can look static and dull in cartoons. The exaggeration can
depend on if you want  realism or particular style. Other forms can have the supernatural or alterations
in the physical features of a character or elements in the storyline.

Solid drawing –
Means taking forms in three-dimensional space, giving them volume and weight. The animator needs to
understand the basics of three dimensional shapes, anatomy, weight, balance, light and shadow. This involes
taking art classes and sketches from life for the claassical animator.

Appeal –
A character who is appealing is not necessarily sympathetic. The important thing is that the viewer feels
the characters are real and interesting. Likable characters a symmetrical or particularly baby-like face can
be effective for the character connecting better with the viewers. A complicated or hard to read face will
lack appeal.

Animation – Types

Classical and digital 2D animation –
Classical also known as hand-drawn or traditional animation is a technique
animators use when they make at least 12 drawings on paper for a second length of film. Drawings are
scanned or captured for post production using computers. This was the main form of animation for tv
series and in film before the development of CGI.
In digital the animation frames are drawn directly on software. A mouse or pen tablet is used for this. The
technique is mostly used for tv series and web animation.

Digital 3D Animation –
By using this type of animation the 3D models are created, textured, rigged, and animated in the virtual

Stop-motion –
Is when a character or object is placed and posed against its background to show a frame. It’s then sightly
altered then makes another frame. This is repeated until the length of the animation is finished.

Clay animation –
Is one of the forms of stop motion. It is recognized as a independent technique and genre because of its
popularity and extensive use of clay (usually plasticine)

Cut-out animation –
Is another type of stop motion technique. It makes animations using flat character, backgrounds and
props. These are made out of different materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric and photographs.

Paint-on-glass animation –
Is used for animation films using slow drying oil paints of sheets of glass

Drawn-on-film animation –
Is also known as direct animation or animation without camera. It creates images directly on film stock
instead to any other form where the images/objects are photographed by frames with a camera.

Experimental animation –
This has no limitations for ideas or what is used. Instinct is used for materials of your choice to make the
final animation.

Flip Book –
Is created by a series of pictures that go from one page to the next. It shows the motion when the pages
are turned quickly.

Phenakistoscope disc –
Was early animation shown though a device that used vision principle to create a illusion of motion

Zoetrope –
It creates the illusion of motion from spinning. On the inside of the cylinder there are a set of sequenced
images. It spins and the person looks though the slits that are on the sides. The praxinoscope was the
successor to the zoetrope.

Puppet animation –
Involves stop motion puppet figures interacting within an constructed environment. The puppets have
armature inside them to keep them still and move particular joints. Puppet-animated films use different
versions of the puppet for different frames rather than using one existing puppet.

Animation – What is it/Can be used for

Animation is a process of creating different images in different kinds of media. The different images are
used to create the illusion of movement and to create something that looks alive. They can have between
24 to 30 frames per second.

Animation can be used for a lot of different things. It’s used in films and tv shows, as well as logos and
advertisments. It can be used to inspire people who are interested in not just animation but anything in
general. It can also be used to inform us of something as well as for education purposes. Video games
can also have animation in them.